Posts Tagged ‘HIV’

Vote for the Most Important Article, 1990-1999

Posted by Karen Buckley • July 26th, 2012

There are only five days left to vote for the NEJM article that you think was the most significant advance of the 1990s.  Which one of these was it? Vote now! Although it had previously been shown that Helicobacter pylori caused gastritis and peptic ulcers, two pioneering studies published in 1991, led by Nomura and Parsonnet,… Read More…

HIV-Associated Psychosis

Posted by Sara Fazio • February 17th, 2012

In the latest Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 39-year-old man with a recent diagnosis of HIV infection was admitted to this hospital with fever and bizarre, nihilistic delusions, including statements that he had died. A diagnostic procedure was performed. Psychosis is a symptom, not a diagnosis, and can be organized into primary and… Read More…

Antiretroviral Therapy and Tuberculosis

Posted by Graham McMahon • October 21st, 2011

When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection and TB has been debated. In a new study from Cambodia, giving antiretrovirals 2 weeks after the start of TB therapy was superior to therapy begun at 8 weeks, with a decrease in mortality. Tuberculosis is a major cause of death in persons… Read More…

Cryptococcosis

Posted by Graham McMahon • September 16th, 2011

In this week’s Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 74-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris was referred for evaluation of lung nodules. Imaging of the chest revealed multiple ill-defined nodules, some with marked 18F fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. A diagnostic procedure was performed. Cryptococcosis is most often seen in the United States in patients with advanced HIV… Read More…

Prevention of HIV Transmission

Posted by Graham McMahon • August 12th, 2011

In a large, international study of HIV-1–serodiscordant couples, the receipt of antiretroviral therapy by the infected partner decreased transmission to the uninfected partner as well as rates of clinical events in the HIV-1–infected partner. Because the sexual transmission of HIV-1 from infected persons to their partners is strongly correlated with concentrations of HIV-1 in blood and in… Read More…

Treatment as Prevention

Posted by John Staples • August 10th, 2011

Just for a moment, imagine that you’ve just finished treating me for active pulmonary tuberculosis. I’m cured and therefore happy. What’s more, my future roommates are happy: I’ll no longer aerosolize inocula of acid-fast bacilli with each chesty cough, and they won’t even be exposed to the disease. Even my future roommates’ future roommates probably… Read More…

Neurologic Effects of HIV

Posted by Graham McMahon • June 17th, 2011

In this week’s Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 35-year-old woman with stable HIV infection was admitted to this hospital because of headache and altered mental status. Brain imaging revealed diffuse white-matter abnormalities. A diagnostic test was performed. HIV infection is associated with a spectrum of syndromes of cognitive dysfunction, which are subsumed… Read More…

HIV in South Africa

Posted by Graham McMahon • May 20th, 2011

In the latest Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 19-year-old woman was seen in a clinic in South Africa because of headache, fatigue, sore throat, anorexia, and vaginal discharge. She had no history of STIs. Rapid testing for HIV-1 was negative. The initial symptoms resolved, but a painful genital ulcer developed. With less… Read More…

Acute HIV Infection

Posted by Graham McMahon • May 20th, 2011

The latest article in our Medical Progress review series is on Acute HIV-1 Infection. There are now 33.2 million people living with human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and 2.6 million additional cases are diagnosed each year. The need for effective HIV-1 prevention has never been greater. Clinical Pearls • How quickly after exposure can HIV… Read More…

Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention

Posted by Graham McMahon • December 31st, 2010

In a study by Grant et al., 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who were at high risk for HIV acquisition were enrolled in a trial of daily emtricitabine plus tenofovir versus placebo. Those receiving the antiretroviral medication had a 44% reduction in HIV incidence. A total of 2.7 million new infections with the human… Read More…