Posts Tagged ‘HIV’

The AIDS Pandemic

Posted by • June 7th, 2013

The HIV–AIDS pandemic is now in its fourth decade. The latest article in our new Global Health series describes how HIV–AIDS has been transformed from a death sentence into a manageable illness and outlines the need for continued and coordinated international efforts. It was not until the third decade of the epidemic that the world’s public… Read More…

Injuries

Posted by • May 3rd, 2013

Injuries, whether intentional or unintentional, account for a substantial burden on the health care system. The latest article in our new Global Health series describes the magnitude of the problem worldwide, enumerates ongoing efforts to prevent injuries, and summarizes systems that need to be in place to care for the injured. In 2010, there were 5.1… Read More…

Would You Recommend Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention?

Posted by • August 2nd, 2012

In our latest Clinical Decisions, two patients— a 46-year-old man from New York who has sex with men and an 18-year-old heterosexual woman with multiple partners in South Africa — are at risk for infection with HIV.  Would you recommend preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP)? This question comes on the heels of three large studies of oral TDF… Read More…

Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention

Posted by • August 1st, 2012

What if there was a medication that one could take every day to prevent the acquisition of HIV? This approach to combat HIV is called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP.  The idea behind PrEP is that the same antiretroviral medications that are used to treat HIV infected individuals could also help protect non-infected individuals from acquiring… Read More…

Vote for the Most Important Article, 1990-1999

Posted by • July 26th, 2012

There are only five days left to vote for the NEJM article that you think was the most significant advance of the 1990s.  Which one of these was it? Vote now! Although it had previously been shown that Helicobacter pylori caused gastritis and peptic ulcers, two pioneering studies published in 1991, led by Nomura and Parsonnet, provided… Read More…

HIV-Associated Psychosis

Posted by • February 17th, 2012

In the latest Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 39-year-old man with a recent diagnosis of HIV infection was admitted to this hospital with fever and bizarre, nihilistic delusions, including statements that he had died. A diagnostic procedure was performed. Psychosis is a symptom, not a diagnosis, and can be organized into primary and secondary… Read More…

Antiretroviral Therapy and Tuberculosis

Posted by • October 21st, 2011

When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection and TB has been debated. In a new study from Cambodia, giving antiretrovirals 2 weeks after the start of TB therapy was superior to therapy begun at 8 weeks, with a decrease in mortality. Tuberculosis is a major cause of death in persons infected… Read More…

Cryptococcosis

Posted by • September 16th, 2011

In this week’s Case Record of the Massachusetts General Hospital, a 74-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris was referred for evaluation of lung nodules. Imaging of the chest revealed multiple ill-defined nodules, some with marked 18F fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. A diagnostic procedure was performed. Cryptococcosis is most often seen in the United States in patients with advanced HIV infection,… Read More…

Prevention of HIV Transmission

Posted by • August 12th, 2011

In a large, international study of HIV-1–serodiscordant couples, the receipt of antiretroviral therapy by the infected partner decreased transmission to the uninfected partner as well as rates of clinical events in the HIV-1–infected partner. Because the sexual transmission of HIV-1 from infected persons to their partners is strongly correlated with concentrations of HIV-1 in blood and in the… Read More…

Treatment as Prevention

Posted by • August 10th, 2011

Just for a moment, imagine that you’ve just finished treating me for active pulmonary tuberculosis. I’m cured and therefore happy. What’s more, my future roommates are happy: I’ll no longer aerosolize inocula of acid-fast bacilli with each chesty cough, and they won’t even be exposed to the disease. Even my future roommates’ future roommates probably… Read More…