Care of the Asplenic Patient

Posted by • July 25th, 2014

Asplenic patients are at risk for rapidly progressive septicemia and death. Such patients should be vaccinated against pneumococci, H. influenzae type b, meningococci, and influenza virus, and if fever develops, they should receive empirical antimicrobial therapy immediately.  This is the topic of the latest Clinical Practice review.

Mortality among patients with postsplenectomy sepsis can be as high as 50%. Most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, this infection often has a sudden onset and a fulminant course.

Clinical Pearls

What factors influence the risk of postsplenectomy sepsis?

The risk of postsplenectomy sepsis varies according to several factors, including the indication for splenectomy, the patient’s age at the time of the surgery, and the interval since plenectomy. With respect to indication, the risk is lowest among otherwise healthy persons who undergo splenectomy because of trauma, intermediate among patients with hereditary spherocytosis or immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and highest among surgically asplenic patients with   (beta)-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, or portal hypertension. With respect to age, the risk of sepsis is highest among infants with surgical or congenital asplenia. Children younger than 5 years at the time of splenectomy have a higher risk than older children or adults, but this finding may in part reflect the increased risk associated with the underlying conditions that warranted splenectomy (e.g., thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia). With respect to the interval since splenectomy, the risks of sepsis and associated death are highest in the first year after splenectomy, at least among young children, but remain elevated for more than 10 years and probably for life.

What pathogen most commonly causes sepsis in patients who have undergone splenectomy?

The pathogen that most commonly causes sepsis in patients who have undergone splenectomy, as well as in children with sickle cell disease, is S. pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Another encapsulated bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), which primarily affects children younger than 5 years of age, is now rare because of universal use of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the United States. Although Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus each accounts for a small proportion of bloodstream isolates from asplenic persons, whether asplenia is actually a risk factor for infection with these pathogens has not been established.

Morning Report Questions

Q: What vaccines are recommended for patients who have undergone a splenectomy?

A: Several vaccines are available for some of the pathogens that cause postsplenectomy sepsis, specifically S. pneumoniae, Hib, and N. meningitidis. For prevention of pneumococcal infection, administration of PCV13 followed 8 weeks later by PPSV23 is recommended. The risk of invasive infection with Hib among adults and older children is very low. Therefore, it is reasonable to limit vaccination of adults or older children with the Hib vaccine to those who were not previously vaccinated. Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) has replaced quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine for patients without a spleen; a two-dose primary series is indicated for such patients. Annual vaccination against influenza virus is recommended because influenza infection confers a predisposition to bacterial pneumonia and sepsis caused by S. pneumoniae and S. aureus.

Table 1. Recommended Vaccinations for Asplenic Patients.

Q: How should fever in an asplenic patient be handled?

A: If fever develops in an asplenic patient, immediate administration of an antimicrobial agent is indicated, because fever can be the initial manifestation of a fulminant infection and prompt administration of an antimicrobial agent may prevent the development of clinical sepsis. Ceftriaxone administered intravenously or intramuscularly with or without vancomycin is a reasonable empirical choice. Ceftriaxone is active against most S. pneumoniae strains as well as H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and many community-acquired gram-negative bacilli, including capnocytophaga.

Figure 1. Management of an Episode of Fever in an Asplenic Patient.

5 Responses to “Care of the Asplenic Patient”

  1. Mary Lee Morton says:

    I had my spleen removed in 1970, due to auto accident. I have been septic once,due to a tooth extraction,another time due to strept pneumonia in sterile cavity of my knee joint. I hope that if I’m ever running a fever no-one puts me on Vanco w/o really good reason…

  2. naif says:

    good lack iam pediatric specialist
    and always follow up your post

  3. David Moran says:

    I had my spleen removed in 1973, due to slow leak following light trauma. I have never been septic. I hope that if I’m ever running a fever everyone takes appropriate antibio measures as described above.

  4. Wendy says:

    I had a splenectomy due to ITP at age 16 in 1970. I have just been diagnosed with breast cancer. Are there specific recommendations for asplenic breast cancer patients during radiation and chemotherapy?

  5. Marcia says:

    In 2010 an Oncologist discovered my absent spleen. I didn’t have it removed so I was diagonosed with congenital asplenia. I am 45 years old and a white female. I have cutaneous lupus and high blood pressure. I rarely find any information on this condition and I would appreciate any feedback on problems or procedures I should have to check up on my health. I sometimes read about heart conditions related to congenital asplenia. Should I be concerned with this issue or am I getting this information confused. I would appreciate any information on this condition as the internet has limited information for me.